Books, Articles, and Chapters
- Bennett, C. L., Gleason, C., Klaus Scheuerman, M., Bigham, J. P., Guo, A., & To, A.. (2021). “It’s complicated”: Negotiating accessibility and (mis)representation in image descriptions of race, gender, and disability. In CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’21), May 8-13, 2021, Yokohama, Japan. ACM, New York, NY.
- Braun, S., & Starr, K. (Eds). (2020). Innovation in audio description research. London: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003052968.
- Ellis, K. (2015). Netflix closed captions offer an accessible model for the streaming video industry, but what about audio description? Communication, Politics & Culture, 47(3), 3-20.
- Ellis, K. (2017). #socialconversations: Disability representation and audio description in Marvel’s Daredevil. In K. Ellis & M. Kent (Eds.), Disability and social media: Global perspectives (pp. 147-160). New York: Routledge.
- Fryer, L. (2018). Staging the audio describer: An exploration of integrated audio description. In H. Thompson & V. Warne (Eds.), Blindness Arts [Feature Issue]. Disability Studies Quarterly, 38(3). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v38i3.6490.
- Hadley, B., & Rieger, J. (2021). Co-designing choice: objectivity, aesthetics and agency in audio-description. Museum Management and Curatorship, 36(2),189-203. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09647775.2021.1878469.
- Imagining the lenses of image descriptions. (2021, February). Braille Monitor, 64(2). Baltimore: National Federation of the Blind. Also available as an Audio file.
- Jankowska, A. (2021, July). Audio describing films: A first look into the description process.
In F. Mus & S. Neelsen (Eds.), Translation and Plurisemiotic Practices [Special Issue]. The Journal of Specialised Translation Issue 36a, 26-52.
- Kleege, G., & Wallin, S. (2015). Audio description as a pedagogical tool. In L. Ben-Moshe, A. Day, J. Ferris, & K. Nielsen (Eds.), Interventions in Disability Studies Pedagogy [Feature Issue]. Disability Studies Quarterly, 35(2). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v35i2.4622.
- Mazur I. (2020) Audio description: Concepts, theories and research approaches. In Ł. Bogucki, & M. Deckert (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of audiovisual translation and media accessibility [Palgrave Studies in Translating and Interpreting] (pp. 227-247). Champaign, IL: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-42105-2_12.
- Robert, I. S., De Meulder, A., & Schrijver, I. (2021, July). Live subtitling for access to education: A pilot study of university students’ reception of intralingual live subtitles. In F. Mus & S. Neelsen (Eds.), Translation and Plurisemiotic Practices [Special Issue]. The Journal of Specialised Translation Issue 36a, 53-78.
- Snyder, J. (2005, September). Audio description: The visual made verbal. International Congress Series, 1282, 935-939. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ics.2005.05.215.
- Snyder, J. (2014). The visual made verbal: A comprehensive training manual and guide to the history and applications of audio description. Alexandria, VA: American Council of the Blind.
- Stangl, A., Ringel Morris, M., & Gurari, D. (2020, April). “Person, shoes, tree. Is the person naked?” What people with vision impairments want in image descriptions. In CHI ’20: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1–13). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3313831.3376404.
- Thomson, E. A. (2020, Spring). Audio description as a collaborative and reflexive tool (Practice Brief). Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 33(1), 103-107. [NOTE: issues of JPED are available in multiple formats]
- Thompson, H. (2018). Audio description: Turning access to film into cinema art. In H. Thompson & V. Warne (Eds.), Blindness Arts [Feature Issue]. Disability Studies Quarterly, 38(3). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v38i3.6487.
- Watlington, E., with Cole, V. (2020, September 20). Audio description, described. In E. Watlington (Ed.), Access and the Arts [Feature Issue]. VoCA Journal Issue 10. New York: Voices in Contemporary Art (VoCA), Bobst Library, New York University.
Guidelines and Toolkits
- 508 Accessible Videos – How to Make Audio Descriptions– This article provides guidance on creating audio description for Section 508 created videos (Section 508 requires federal agencies to make their ICT such as technology, online training and websites accessible for everyone).
- Audio Description of Visual Information – “This page helps you understand and create description of visual information for new and existing videos.”
- Beginner’s Guide to Audio Description – “This White Paper is designed to serve as your comprehensive beginner’s guide to all things audio description to help you easily create accessible video content.”
- Describing Visual Resources Toolkit: Describing Visual Resources for Accessibility in Arts & Humanities Publications – “The resources in this toolkit are designed to support authors, editors, publishers, and arts organizations in advancing the description of visual resources for accessibility in arts and humanities publications.”
- Revising Alt Text (and video description) Best Practices for a Better Learning Experience – Archived AHEAD presentation discussing the difference between “informational” & “educational” materials and how standard guidelines for writing text alternatives and video description for media need to be adjusted for use in Higher Education and other forms of alternative learning, taking into account cognitive load, informational density, an increased understanding of “context and purpose,” and more.
- UDL ON CAMPUS: Universal Design for Learning in Higher Education – Audio Description – “Learn about Best Practices, how to create audio descriptions in Do it Yourself, and explore additional Resources about audio description”; Images – “This resource describes how images can be used effectively to communicate information and addresses how to make images fully accessible.”
- The Ultimate Guide to Audio Description –“This guide includes just about everything there is to know about audio description. From laws to best practices, it’s all here.”
- Movie Captioning and Audio Description Final Rule (ADA.gov) – “ Title III of the ADA requires public accommodations, including movie theaters, to provide effective communication through the use of auxiliary aids and services. This rulemaking specifies requirements that movie theaters must meet to satisfy their effective communication obligations to people with hearing and vision disabilities unless compliance results in an undue burden or a fundamental alteration.”
- FCC Guidance on Audio Description – “Audio description (referred to as video description in the Commission’s rules) is audio-narrated descriptions of a television program’s key visual elements. These descriptions are inserted into natural pauses in the program’s dialogue. Audio description makes television programming more accessible to individuals who are blind or visually impaired.” https://www.fcc.gov/consumers/guides/audio-description
- A guide to understanding and implementing Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2 – Understanding SC 1.2.5 – Audio Description (Prerecorded): Audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media. (Level AA) “The intent of this Success Criterion (SC) is to provide people who are blind or visually impaired access to the visual information in a synchronized media presentation. The audio description augments the audio portion of the presentation with the information needed when the video portion is not available. During existing pauses in dialogue, audio description provides information about actions, characters, scene changes, and on-screen text that are important and are not described or spoken in the main sound track.”
Media-Specific Guidelines and Resources
- Apple iOS – Use audio descriptions to hear narration describing a video clip, show, or movie (11/12/2020) – “OS X Yosemite and later and iOS 8 and later include the ability to play audio descriptions of video files when these tracks are available.“
- The Audio Description Project – “learn everything about Audio Description, from what is it, to samples, to who does it, to how and where it is available in various media”; includes a database to discover is a video or film has AD.
- Audio description for shows and movies on Hulu
- Audio Description Style Guide v2.3 – This document contains a list of required practices when originating audio description for Netflix content for Netflix Partners
- Blind Accessible Comics (Spin Weave and Cut, Nick Sousanis)
- HBO Max begins rolling out audio descriptions
- On Making Comic Books For the Blind (Literary Hub) – “comic-book writer, publisher, and seller, Guy Hasson, seeks to reach a population few others have considered: the blind.”
- Generating real-time audio description for live streamed gaming
Blogs, Podcasts, and Projects
- Alt Text As Poetry
- The Audio Description Network Alliance
- The Audio Description Project
- Described and Captioned Media Program
- Diagram Center – http://diagramcenter.org/ – “We are striving to ensure that accessible educational material is created, published and available for all types of disabilities and learning styles.”
- Image Description Guidelines – http://diagramcenter.org/making-images-accessible.html
- 3D Printing, Tactiles and Haptics – http://diagramcenter.org/3d-printing.html
- Accessible Math – http://diagramcenter.org/accessible-math-tools-tips-and-training.html
- Born Accessible Publishing – http://diagramcenter.org/born-accessible-publishing.html
- Research: Information & Innovation – http://diagramcenter.org/research.html
- DIAGRAM Center Reports – http://diagramcenter.org/diagram-reports.html
- How to write an image description – The author wrote this how-to guide with counsel and insights from Bex Leon and Robin Fanning, as well as through an online survey of Blind / low vision / visually impaired people.
- The Importance of Audio Description for Subtitled Movies
- Meet the audio description experts making games more accessible to the visually impaired
- My Journey Into (and a Brief History of) Audio Description at Netflix
- Reid My Mind – Thomas Reid is a blind podcaster with a radio show/podcast, with many episodes on/about Audio Description.
- Turning Sights into Sounds: The Art of Audio Descriptions
- Why You Need Audio Descriptions to Make Online Course Videos Accessible